The number of high-earners in the EU increased significantly, from 3 178 in 2013 to 3 865 in 2014, corresponding to a 21.6% increase on the previous year. The percentage of those high-earners who are identified staff, i.e. those who have a potential impact on institutions' risk profiles, also increased significantly from 59% in 2013 to 87% in 2014; and the absolute number of identified staff went up from 34 060 in 2013 to 62 787 in 2014.
This increase in numbers is mainly the result of the European Banking Authority’s(EBA) Regulatory Technical Standard (RTS) on identified staff, which entered into force in 2014. These RTS brought a more accurate definition based on qualitative and quantitative criteria, so as to allow for a better identification of those staff that have a material impact on the risk profile of institutions.
The introduction of the so-called ‘bonus cap' – the limitation of the ratio between the variable and the fixed components of remuneration to 100% (200% with shareholders' approval) which is applicable since 2014 – had an impact on remuneration practices; EU banking institutions shifted the remuneration for their identified staff towards the fixed component, bringing the ratio in line with what is prescribed by EU legislation. As a result, the average ratio between the variable and fixed salary paid to identified staff was 65.48% in 2014, down from 104.27% in 2013. At the same time, the average ratio between the variable and fixed remuneration paid to high earners dropped from 317% in 2013 to 127% in 2014.
The introduction of the bonus cap was found to have no significant effect on institutions' financial stability and cost flexibility. For most institutions, the fixed salary of identified staff accounted for less than 1% of their own funds; and on average accounted for only 3.12% of the institutions' administrative costs. This small increase in the fixed remuneration for identified staff is not material compared to the administrative costs of institutions.
The EBA report also highlighted that institutions' remuneration practices were still not sufficiently harmonised across the EU.
Report on Benchmarking of Remuneration and High Earners 2014
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